As the world urbanizes, so too does conflict. Increasingly, fighting takes place in urban areas – from Mosul, Aleppo, Aden, Raqqa to Donestsk and Tripoli – and civilians bear the brunt of it. The humanitarian impact is not unique to cities, but it occurs on a significantly larger scale in urban warfare and may require a different humanitarian response.

In this episode host Elizabeth Rushing continues the conversation with three ICRC colleagues: Caroline Baudot, the Deputy Head of Protection of Civilians, Stephen Kilpatrick, advisor in our Relations with Arms Carriers unit, and legal advisor and IHL expert Abby Zeith. Having looked in the first podcast at some of the more strategic aspects, this second discussion focuses on some issues closer to home: what the ICRC is doing to address the humanitarian consequences of urban warfare, particularly in terms of its engagement with arms carriers, and how IHL applies to conflict in urban settings.

*Intercross, the Podcast disclaimer: Just because something or someone is featured here doesn’t mean we endorse or agree with the institutions they represent. Views expressed on the platforms we may highlight don’t necessarily represent those of the ICRC.*