* Last updated on 21 April 2017

Ahmed Aldawoody

Dr Ahmed Aldawoody, born in Egypt, is the Legal Adviser for Islamic Law and Jurisprudence at the ICRC. Prior to joining the ICRC, he was an Assistant Professor in Islamic Studies at Al-Azhar University in Cairo. He was the Assistant Director of Graduate Studies for the Institute for Islamic World Stukdies and the coordinator of the MA program in Contemporary Islamic Studies at Zayed University in Dubai. He earned his PhD from the University of Birmingham, UK; his MA in Islamic Studies from Leiden University, the Netherlands; and a five-year BA degree in Islamic Studies from Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. He has published many articles, including on the relation between Islamic Law and IHL, and is the author of the publication The Islamic Law of War: Justifications and Regulations (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

Follow on Twitter @AhmedAlDawoody


Hamit Dardagan

Hamit Dardagan is co-director of Every Casualty Worldwide, which hosts the Casualty Recorders Network (CRN), and with whom it developed the Standards for Casualty Recording. They are also co-founders of Iraq Body Count, a CRN member that maintains the world’s largest public database of violent civilian deaths in Iraq since the 2003 invasion, as well as separate running total which includes combatants.

Follow on Twitter @everycasualty


Cordula Droege

Cordula Droege is Head of Unit of the ICRC Legal Advisers to the Operations.


Marc DuBois

Currently an independent humanitarian consultant, analyst and blogger, last year Marc DuBois co-authored The Ebola Response in West Africa, Exposing the politics and culture of international aid (.pdf) for the Overseas Development Institute. Prior to consulting, Marc spent 15 years at Médecins sans Frontières, primarily in humanitarian affairs, policy and management, and was the Executive Director of MSF-UK (2008 to 2014).

Marc blogs regularly at and can be found on twitter @humanicontraria.


Helen Durham

Helen Durham is ICRC’s Director of International Law and Policy. She has a PhD in the fields of international humanitarian law and international criminal law, and is a senior fellow at Melbourne Law School. She has been director of international law, strategy, planning and research at the Australian Red Cross and has worked as ICRC head of office in Sydney and as legal adviser to the ICRC regional delegation in the Pacific. She has also completed a number of missions with the ICRC in Myanmar, Aceh and the Philippines.

Follow on Twitter @HADurhamICRC


George Dvaladze

George Dvaladze works at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. He is also a PhD student at the University of Geneva. George has been an editorial assistant at the International Review of the Red Cross. In the past he has worked for the Human Rights Education and Monitoring Center (EMC) and served as a legal adviser at the Public International Law Department of the Ministry of Justice of Georgia. He holds an LL.M. from the Geneva Academy, as well as a master’s and bachelor’s degrees from Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University.


Ezequiel Heffes

Ezequiel Heffes is currently a thematic legal advisor at Geneva Call. He holds an LL.M. in International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights from the Geneva Academy of IHL and HR, and a law degree from the University of Buenos Aires School of Law. Prior to joining Geneva Call, Ezequiel worked as a field and protection delegate and as head of office for the ICRC in Colombia, Afghanistan and the DRC.


Jean-Marie Henckaerts

Jean-Marie Henckaerts is head of the ICRC project to update the Commentaries on the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977. A first milestone was reached on 22 March 2016 with the release of the updated Commentary on the First Geneva Convention. Prior to this, he was the head of the ICRC’s project on customary international humanitarian law (IHL); he is a co-author of the ICRC study on the subject. He holds the degrees of SJD from the George Washington University Law School, LL.M. from the University of Georgia School of Law and LL.B. from the University of Brussels. He has published seven books and numerous articles on international law, IHL and human rights law.


Christoph Hensch

Christoph Hensch is a former Executive Director of the Mandala Foundation and Independent Consultant. He was Head of Office at the ICRC surgical hospital in Novye Atagi in 1996.


ICRC Advisory Services on IHL

As a specialized structure of the ICRC, the Advisory Service assists States to implement IHL at the national level. With a global network of legal advisers, the Service provides guidance to national authorities on specific domestic implementation measures needed to meet their IHL obligations, and it supports the work of national IHL bodies established to facilitate IHL implementation domestically. Moreover, the Service supports the exchange of information on national measures of implementation. Besides providing legal advice and technical support, the Service helps in capacity building, upon specific request of national authorities and other concerned actors.


ICRC Moscow

The ICRC’s Moscow delegation assists people displaced by the conflict in Eastern Ukraine, maintains a dialogue with Russia on humanitarian and IHL issues, mitigates the consequences of past conflicts in the northern Caucasus and supports the Red Cross Societies of the Russian Federation, Belarus and Moldova. In March 2016 the delegation inaugurated the Humanitarium conference centre in Moscow.


Eric Jensen

Eric Jensen is an Associate Professor of Law at Brigham Young University where he teaches and writes in the areas of public international law, criminal law, the law of armed conflict, international criminal law, and national security law. Professor Jensen is a co-author on an Oxford University text analyzing application of the laws of war to the war on terror and is also co-authoring a law school casebook on the law of armed conflict for Aspen Publishing. Prior to joining the BYU law faculty in 2011, Professor Jensen spent 2 years teaching at Fordham Law School in New York City and 20 years in the United States Army as both a Cavalry Officer and as a Judge Advocate.


Anja Kaspersen

Anja Kaspersen is the head of strategic engagement and new technologies at the ICRC.

Follow on Twitter @AnjaKasp


Pavle Kilibarda

Pavle Kilibarda holds a LL.M. from the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. He worked at the UNHCR office in Belgrade and the Belgrade Centre for Human Rights, engaging principally with the legal position of refugees and asylum-seekers in Serbia. He is the author of several publications dealing with international refugee and human rights law and has spoken in various media outlets.


Etienne Kuster

Etienne Kuster is Adviser for relations with academic circles at the ICRC, where he has been working since 2006. After field missions in Pakistan and Thailand, he took up his current position, overseeing and supporting the ICRC’s worldwide interactions with academic institutions for the promotion of law and humanitarian action. He holds of a law degree from the University of Geneva and a M.A.S. in IHL from the Geneva Academy.

Follow on Twitter @Etienne_Kuster


Kathleen Lawand

Kathleen Lawand is head of the ICRC’s Arms Unit. She previously served as head of its Legal Advisers to the Operations. She joined the ICRC in 2000, and was posted to India, West Africa, Iraq support, and Afghanistan.  Prior to joining the ICRC, she worked in the areas of disarmament, international criminal law and refugee law. She is a member of the Québec Bar and holds a Masters degree in public international law from the London School of Economics.

Follow on Twitter @klawand


Charlotte Lindsey-Curtet

Charlotte Lindsey-Curtet is the director of communication and information management for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), incorporating public and corporate communication, archives and information management as well as information and communication technologies. Charlotte began her career in the ICRC in 1993 and has held several positions in field operations as well as positions in the ICRC’s headquarters including deputy director of communication, deputy head of policy and movement relations, as head of the Women and War project. She is the author of Women Facing War, a study on the impact of armed conflict on women.

Follow on Twitter @CLindseyICRC


Fyodor Lukyanov

Fyodor Lukyanov is editor of Russia in Global Affairs, published with participation of Foreign Affairs. He is a member of the Editorial Board of the International Review of the Red Cross, of the presidium of Russian international affairs council, and is the chairman of the Council on foreign and defense policy (SVOP). Since 2015 Lukyanov has been a research professor at the State Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow. His column appears regularly in The Moscow Times, the Russian edition of Forbes magazine, Rossiyskaya gazeta and He holds a master’s degree in German language and literature from Moscow State University.


Mutsa Mangezi

Mutsa Mangezi holds a LL.M (2007) from Rhodes University, South Africa. In 2008, she completed her articles of clerkship and went on to practice human rights law. Thereafter she was appointed as a lecturer at Rhodes University where she lectured public international law and clinical law. In 2012 she joined the ICRC’s Pretoria delegation as a Legal Advisor, specializing in international humanitarian law, in particular in training armed forces, government officials and academics in the law of armed conflict.


Louis G. Maresca

Senior Legal Adviser at the ICRC’s Arms Unit, focusing on the use of nuclear weapons and international humanitarian law.


Esperanza Martinez

Dr Esperanza Martinez is Head of the Health Unit at ICRC. She previously worked as a general practitioner in Colombia and Chile, as well as for several NGOs and international organizations such as the World Health Organization, USAID and the International Medical Corps. She first joined the ICRC in 2000 as Health and Relief Coordinator for Nepal. She holds a Bachelor of Medicine and a Bachelor of Surgery from the National University of Colombia, and two master’s degrees (International Public Health, Health Management) from UNSW Australia.


Claudia McGoldrick

Claudia McGoldrick works as Special Adviser to the ICRC’s Presidency and Office of the Director General. Prior to joining the ICRC in 2006, she worked as Senior Country Analyst for the Norwegian Refugee Council and as Africa Director for the Committee to Protect Journalists in New York. As a journalist reporting for various international media outlets such as the BBC, Reuters, The Economist and The Guardian, she worked for several years in West Africa, Central Asia and the United Kingdom.


Omar Mekky

Omar Mekky is Regional Legal Coordinator for Middle East and North Africa at the ICRC, which he joined in 2011. From 2005 to 2012 he served as Public Prosecutor in the Egyptian Judicial Authority, and also worked as an Investigative Assistant in the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (BICI), before being promoted as a Judge in the Egyptian Primary Courts late 2012. He holds a LL.B. (Cum Laude) from Alexandria University, a LL.M. from Saint Thomas University and a Postgraduate Diploma in International Criminal Law from Salzburg Law School. He is currently a PhD candidate in International Law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID).


Nils Melzer

Dr Nils Melzer currently holds the Human Rights Chair at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. On 30 September 2016 he was appointed as UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Dr Melzer holds a PhD in law of the University of Zürich (summa cum laude) and has authored numerous works, including his award-winning book Targeted Killing in International Law, the ICRC’s Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities, and the ICRC’s new handbook International Humanitarian Law – a Comprehensive Introduction.


Elizabeth Minor

Elizabeth Minor is a Researcher at UK non-governmental organization Article 36, where she covers a range of weapons issues including nuclear weapons. She has previously worked for nongovernmental organizations Every Casualty and Oxford Research Group, where her research focused on methodologies and practices used in the field of documenting and recording the casualties of armed conflict and violence. She holds an MSc in Comparative Politics from the London School of Economics and Political Science and a BA in History from University College London.


Stéphane Ojeda

Stephane Ojeda is Deputy Head & Legal Advisor to the ICRC Delegation to the United Nations, New York.


Ellen Nohle

Ellen Nohle obtained her bachelor in law from the University of Cambridge, Clare College, and went on to study international law and dispute settlement at the UN University for Peace in Costa Rica. She holds a BCL from the University of Oxford, and is currently working on a variety of issues relating to international humanitarian law.


Jennie Phillips

Jennie Phillips is a Doctoral Fellow with the Citizen Lab, University of Toronto. Her research aims to identify a distributed approach to developing crisis resilience within digital crisis response networks. She holds a MA in Education Technology and has worked with the Canadian federal government, international organizations, private and non-profit sector, and her company ellips design + consulting.


Anne Quintin

Anne Quintin is a Legal Training Advisor at the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). She has previously held a number of positions at the ICRC, in the organization’s headquarters in Geneva, as well as its North American delegation in Washington, DC. She is also a co-author of the reference work ‘How does law protect in war?’ together with Marco Sassòli and Antoine Bouvier. She is currently doing a PhD at the Faculty of Law of the University of Geneva.


Michael Riepl

Michael Kurt Riepl holds a German law degree from the University of Passau and an LL.M. from the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. He is currently conducting research in various areas of international law, including the field of autonomous weapons.


Bede Sheppard

Bede Sheppard is the deputy director for children’s rights at Human Rights Watch, where he investigates war crimes and abuses committed against students, teachers, and schools. During his time with Human Rights Watch, he has conducted investigations and advocacy on the Democratic Republic of Congo, Japan, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Ukraine, and Yemen.

Follow on Twitter @BedeOnKidRights


Hugo Slim

Hugo Slim is head of humanitarian policy at ICRC. An award-winning academic, he authored Killing Civilians: Method, Madness and Morality in War and over sixty academic papers. He has an MA in Theology from the University of Oxford and a PhD in Humanitarian Ethics from Oxford Brookes University. Prior to his appointment, he was a Visiting Fellow at the Oxford Institute of Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict at the University of Oxford. He has previously worked in academia, humanitarian agencies and business.

Follow on Twitter @HSlimICRC


John Sloboda

John Sloboda is co-director of Every Casualty Worldwide, which hosts the Casualty Recorders Network (CRN), and with whom it developed the Standards for Casualty Recording. They are also co-founders of Iraq Body Count, a CRN member that maintains the world’s largest public database of violent civilian deaths in Iraq since the 2003 invasion, as well as separate running total which includes combatants.

Follow on Twitter @everycasualty


Sarah Swart

Sarah Swart completed her LL.M. in Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa from the Centre for Human Rights at the University of Pretoria in 2008, with distinction. Since February 2009 she has been employed at the Pretoria Delegation of the ICRC, firstly as a Legal Assistant and, from November 2011, as the Regional Legal Advisor. In this post, she supports 13 African governments in their implementation of international humanitarian law. Sarah has published a number of articles and participated in numerous short courses on international human rights and humanitarian law.


David Tuck

David Tuck is Legal Adviser to the Operations at the ICRC.


Terry Waite

For much of his life Terry Waite has worked in conflict zones around the world. During the 1980’s he supported the freeing of hostages in Iran, Libya and Lebanon. In the latter country he was himself captured by an Islamic militia group and spent almost five years in solitary confinement. Since his release he founded the NGO Hostage UK and co-founded Y Care International, for which he acts as President.




Vincent Bernard

Vincent Bernard is the editor-in-chief of the International Review of the Red Cross, and the Head of ICRC’s Law & Policy Forum, which runs ICRC’s engagement with academia, legal and policy training and the Humanitarium, the ICRC’s conference center in Geneva. He has lectured on international law and IHL at the University of Marmara in Istanbul, and has worked for the ICRC for 17 years both in the field (Senegal, Kenya, Israel and the Occupied territories) and at headquarters. He holds a master’s degree from the Strasburg’s Political Sciences Institute, a LL.M in international law (Law faculty in Strasburg and King’s College London) and a D.E.S. in international relations from the Geneva Graduate Institute of International Studies.

Follow on Twitter @VBernardICRC


Raphaël Dallaire Ferland

Raphaël Dallaire Ferland is the editor of Humanitarian Law & Policy. He also works in communications in ICRC’s Department of International Law & Policy. He previously served as Policy Advisor, coordinating the Research & Debate Cycle on Principles Guiding Humanitarian Action. He holds a M.A. from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID) and authored a study on the international humanitarian response after the Gulf War (.pdf). After graduating from McGill University (B.A. Hons) he worked as a journalist for Le Devoir.

Follow on Twitter @RaphDFerland

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Margherita D’Ascanio

As Law & Policy Advisor, Margherita D’Ascanio is coordinating ICRC’s Research & Debate Cycle on Generating Respect for the Law. She is also a teaching assistant at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. Prior to joining the ICRC in 2014, she worked for several NGOs and law firms, as well as at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. She holds a LL.M from the Geneva Academy and is a Ph.D candidate at the Law Faculty of the University of Geneva.


Andreas Johannes Kaufmann

Andreas Kaufmann is assistant editor of Humanitarian Law & Policy. He also works in communications in ICRC’s Department of International Law & Policy. He holds a M.A. in Political Science from the University of Zurich and a B.A. in International Relations from the University of Geneva. Before joining the ICRC, he worked for swisspeace, the Center for Security Studies at ETH Zurich, and the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs at NATO HQ in Brussels. He (co-)authored and contributed to numerous publications and blog posts analysing international affairs.

Follow on Twitter @Ande_Kaufmann


Ellen Policinski

Ellen Policinski is the managing editor of the International Review of the Red Cross. Prior to joining the Review, she worked in the legal department at the ICRC delegation in Washington, DC. She previously worked on IHL dissemination at the American Red Cross and was a law and policy consultant at the Washington-based NGO Center for Civilians in Conflict. She has an LL.M. from the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, and a J.D. from the University of Villanova Law School.

Follow on Twitter @epolicinski