Sir Michael Aaronson

From 1995–2005 Mike was chief executive of Save the Children UK, having previously been the charity’s international director. His earlier career was in the UK Diplomatic Service, although he first worked in the relief action in Nigeria during the Biafran conflict. Mike is a founder member and was Chair of the Board of the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue in Geneva. An Honorary Fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford, he is also an Honorary Visiting Professor and Director of cii—the Centre for International Intervention—at the University of Surrey. He chairs the Research Councils UK (RCUK) Strategic Advisory Group for the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF).

Follow on Twitter @MikeAaronson

Ahmed Aldawoody

Dr Ahmed Aldawoody, born in Egypt, is the Legal Adviser for Islamic Law and Jurisprudence at the ICRC. Prior to joining the ICRC, he was an Assistant Professor in Islamic Studies at Al-Azhar University in Cairo. He was the Assistant Director of Graduate Studies for the Institute for Islamic World Stukdies and the coordinator of the MA program in Contemporary Islamic Studies at Zayed University in Dubai. He earned his PhD from the University of Birmingham, UK; his MA in Islamic Studies from Leiden University, the Netherlands; and a five-year BA degree in Islamic Studies from Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. He has published many articles, including on the relation between Islamic Law and IHL, and is the author of the publication The Islamic Law of War: Justifications and Regulations (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

Follow on Twitter @AhmedAlDawoody

Paul Beeckman

Dr Beeckman is Prof. Emeritus, Faculty of Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussels. He spent much of his career there as Professor of Radiology. Since his retirement, he has studied both evolutionary theory and the  mechanisms of the brain and behaviour. This blog post is based on a study of scientific literature as well as on personal reflections.

  • The influence of human evolution on our behaviour and the way we perceive facts – October 201


Hamit Dardagan

Hamit Dardagan is co-director of Every Casualty Worldwide, which hosts the Casualty Recorders Network (CRN), and with whom it developed the Standards for Casualty Recording. They are also co-founders of Iraq Body Count, a CRN member that maintains the world’s largest public database of violent civilian deaths in Iraq since the 2003 invasion, as well as separate running total which includes combatants.

Follow on Twitter @everycasualty


Margherita D’Ascanio

As Law & Policy Advisor, Margherita D’Ascanio is coordinated the ICRC’s Research & Debate Cycle on Generating Respect for the Law. She also was a teaching assistant at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. Prior to joining the ICRC in 2014, she worked for several NGOs and law firms, as well as at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. She holds a LL.M from the Geneva Academy and is a Ph.D candidate at the Law Faculty of the University of Geneva.


Raphaël Dallaire Ferland

Raphaël Dallaire Ferland was previously the editor of Humanitarian Law & Policy. He also worked in communications in ICRC’s Department of International Law & Policy. He served as Policy Advisor, coordinating the Research & Debate Cycle on Principles Guiding Humanitarian Action. He holds a M.A. from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID) and authored a study on the international humanitarian response after the Gulf War (.pdf). After graduating from McGill University (B.A. Hons) he worked as a journalist for Le Devoir.

Follow on Twitter @RaphDFerland


Cordula Droege

Cordula Droege is the Chief of Staff for the President, International Committee of the Red Cross. She was previously the Head of Unit of the ICRC Legal Advisers to the Operations.


Marc DuBois

Currently an independent humanitarian consultant, analyst and blogger, last year Marc DuBois co-authored The Ebola Response in West Africa, Exposing the politics and culture of international aid (.pdf) for the Overseas Development Institute. Prior to consulting, Marc spent 15 years at Médecins sans Frontières, primarily in humanitarian affairs, policy and management, and was the Executive Director of MSF-UK (2008 to 2014).

Marc blogs regularly at and can be found on twitter @humanicontraria.


Helen Durham

Helen Durham is ICRC’s Director of International Law and Policy. She has a PhD in the fields of international humanitarian law and international criminal law, and is a senior fellow at Melbourne Law School. She has been director of international law, strategy, planning and research at the Australian Red Cross and has worked as ICRC head of office in Sydney and as legal adviser to the ICRC regional delegation in the Pacific. She has also completed a number of missions with the ICRC in Myanmar, Aceh and the Philippines.

Follow on Twitter @HADurhamICRC


George Dvaladze

George Dvaladze works at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. He is also a PhD student at the University of Geneva. George has been an editorial assistant at the International Review of the Red Cross. In the past he has worked for the Human Rights Education and Monitoring Center (EMC) and served as a legal adviser at the Public International Law Department of the Ministry of Justice of Georgia. He holds an LL.M. from the Geneva Academy, as well as a master’s and bachelor’s degrees from Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University.

Oran Finegan

Oran Finegan is head of forensics for the International Committee of the Red Cross. He oversees their global forensic strategy, which emphasizes furthering the area of Humanitarian Forensic Action, underlining the importance of the dead as a category of victims and supporting efforts to strengthen the institutions response to the issue of the Missing.

Oran began his studies in 1994 in Queen’s University in Belfast, where he obtained a degree in Anatomy, followed by a Master’s degree in Forensic Anthropology from the University of Bradford. He started out as a forensic anthropologist with the United Nations International Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in the Balkans (1998–2001). During this time he worked as an osteologist in Ireland as well. Oran has also spent a number of years working as a forensic anthropologist with the United Nations Office on Missing Persons and Forensics in Kosovo. In 2003 undertook a Master’s degree in Human Rights and Political Theory at the University of Essex in England. In 2006–2008, as part of the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team (EAAF), he worked with the UN Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus, helping coordinate their forensic laboratory operations.

Oran joined the ICRC in 2008. During his eight years at the ICRC he has worked as Regional Forensic Advisor for the Western Balkans (2008–2011), Forensic Advisor for Iraq (2012–2013), where he was based in Amman and Baghdad, and most recently served as Deputy Head of Forensics for the ICRC (2013–2016).

  • Dignity in death: Remembrance and the voice of the dead – 1 November 2017


Ezequiel Heffes

Ezequiel Heffes is currently a thematic legal advisor at Geneva Call. He holds an LL.M. in International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights from the Geneva Academy of IHL and HR, and a law degree from the University of Buenos Aires School of Law. Prior to joining Geneva Call, Ezequiel worked as a field and protection delegate and as head of office for the ICRC in Colombia, Afghanistan and the DRC.


Jean-Marie Henckaerts

Jean-Marie Henckaerts is head of the ICRC project to update the Commentaries on the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977. A first milestone was reached on 22 March 2016 with the release of the updated Commentary on the First Geneva Convention. Prior to this, he was the head of the ICRC’s project on customary international humanitarian law (IHL); he is a co-author of the ICRC study on the subject. He holds the degrees of SJD from the George Washington University Law School, LL.M. from the University of Georgia School of Law and LL.B. from the University of Brussels. He has published seven books and numerous articles on international law, IHL and human rights law.


Christoph Hensch

Christoph Hensch is a former Executive Director of the Mandala Foundation and Independent Consultant. He was Head of Office at the ICRC surgical hospital in Novye Atagi in 1996.


ICRC Advisory Services on IHL

As a specialized structure of the ICRC, the Advisory Service assists States to implement IHL at the national level. With a global network of legal advisers, the Service provides guidance to national authorities on specific domestic implementation measures needed to meet their IHL obligations, and it supports the work of national IHL bodies established to facilitate IHL implementation domestically. Moreover, the Service supports the exchange of information on national measures of implementation. Besides providing legal advice and technical support, the Service helps in capacity building, upon specific request of national authorities and other concerned actors.


ICRC Moscow

The ICRC’s Moscow delegation assists people displaced by the conflict in Eastern Ukraine, maintains a dialogue with Russia on humanitarian and IHL issues, mitigates the consequences of past conflicts in the northern Caucasus and supports the Red Cross Societies of the Russian Federation, Belarus and Moldova. In March 2016 the delegation inaugurated the Humanitarium conference centre in Moscow.


Eric Jensen

Eric Jensen is an Associate Professor of Law at Brigham Young University where he teaches and writes in the areas of public international law, criminal law, the law of armed conflict, international criminal law, and national security law. Professor Jensen is a co-author on an Oxford University text analyzing application of the laws of war to the war on terror and is also co-authoring a law school casebook on the law of armed conflict for Aspen Publishing. Prior to joining the BYU law faculty in 2011, Professor Jensen spent 2 years teaching at Fordham Law School in New York City and 20 years in the United States Army as both a Cavalry Officer and as a Judge Advocate.


Anja Kaspersen

Anja Kaspersen is the head of strategic engagement and new technologies at the ICRC.

Follow on Twitter @AnjaKasp


Pavle Kilibarda

Pavle Kilibarda holds a LL.M. from the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. He worked at the UNHCR office in Belgrade and the Belgrade Centre for Human Rights, engaging principally with the legal position of refugees and asylum-seekers in Serbia. He is the author of several publications dealing with international refugee and human rights law and has spoken in various media outlets.


Etienne Kuster

Etienne Kuster is Adviser for relations with academic circles at the ICRC, where he has been working since 2006. After field missions in Pakistan and Thailand, he took up his current position, overseeing and supporting the ICRC’s worldwide interactions with academic institutions for the promotion of law and humanitarian action. He holds of a law degree from the University of Geneva and a M.A.S. in IHL from the Geneva Academy.

Follow on Twitter @Etienne_Kuster


Kathleen Lawand

Kathleen Lawand is head of the ICRC’s Arms Unit. She previously served as head of its Legal Advisers to the Operations. She joined the ICRC in 2000, and was posted to India, West Africa, Iraq support, and Afghanistan.  Prior to joining the ICRC, she worked in the areas of disarmament, international criminal law and refugee law. She is a member of the Québec Bar and holds a Masters degree in public international law from the London School of Economics.

Follow on Twitter @klawand


Alex Leveringhaus

Dr. Alex Leveringhaus is a political philosopher and ethicist, working on theoretical and ethical issues in armed conflict. Based in the Manchester Centre for Political Theory (MANCEPT) at the University of Manchester, UK, he currently runs a Leverhulme Trust-funded research project on how the rise of non-State actors and the availability of new combat technologies (drones, robots) affects military intervention. Prior to coming to Manchester, Alex was a post-doctoral research fellow at the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict, as well as a Martin Fellow at the Oxford Martin School (2012-15), where he worked on autonomous weapons technology. His book Ethics and Autonomous Weapons was published by Palgrave in 2016


Charlotte Lindsey-Curtet

Charlotte Lindsey-Curtet is the director of communication and information management for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), incorporating public and corporate communication, archives and information management as well as information and communication technologies. Charlotte began her career in the ICRC in 1993 and has held several positions in field operations as well as positions in the ICRC’s headquarters including deputy director of communication, deputy head of policy and movement relations, as head of the Women and War project. She is the author of Women Facing War, a study on the impact of armed conflict on women.

Follow on Twitter @CLindseyICRC


Fyodor Lukyanov

Fyodor Lukyanov is editor of Russia in Global Affairs, published with participation of Foreign Affairs. He is a member of the Editorial Board of the International Review of the Red Cross, of the presidium of Russian international affairs council, and is the chairman of the Council on foreign and defense policy (SVOP). Since 2015 Lukyanov has been a research professor at the State Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow. His column appears regularly in The Moscow Times, the Russian edition of Forbes magazine, Rossiyskaya gazeta and He holds a master’s degree in German language and literature from Moscow State University.


Mutsa Mangezi

Mutsa Mangezi holds a LL.M (2007) from Rhodes University, South Africa. In 2008, she completed her articles of clerkship and went on to practice human rights law. Thereafter she was appointed as a lecturer at Rhodes University where she lectured public international law and clinical law. In 2012 she joined the ICRC’s Pretoria delegation as a Legal Advisor, specializing in international humanitarian law, in particular in training armed forces, government officials and academics in the law of armed conflict.


Louis G. Maresca

Senior Legal Adviser at the ICRC’s Arms Unit, focusing on the use of nuclear weapons and international humanitarian law.


Esperanza Martinez

Dr Esperanza Martinez is Head of the Health Unit at ICRC. She previously worked as a general practitioner in Colombia and Chile, as well as for several NGOs and international organizations such as the World Health Organization, USAID and the International Medical Corps. She first joined the ICRC in 2000 as Health and Relief Coordinator for Nepal. She holds a Bachelor of Medicine and a Bachelor of Surgery from the National University of Colombia, and two master’s degrees (International Public Health, Health Management) from UNSW Australia.


Claudia McGoldrick

Claudia McGoldrick works as Special Adviser to the ICRC’s Presidency and Office of the Director General. Prior to joining the ICRC in 2006, she worked as Senior Country Analyst for the Norwegian Refugee Council and as Africa Director for the Committee to Protect Journalists in New York. As a journalist reporting for various international media outlets such as the BBC, Reuters, The Economist and The Guardian, she worked for several years in West Africa, Central Asia and the United Kingdom.


Omar Mekky

Omar Mekky is Regional Legal Coordinator for Middle East and North Africa at the ICRC, which he joined in 2011. From 2005 to 2012 he served as Public Prosecutor in the Egyptian Judicial Authority, and also worked as an Investigative Assistant in the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (BICI), before being promoted as a Judge in the Egyptian Primary Courts late 2012. He holds a LL.B. (Cum Laude) from Alexandria University, a LL.M. from Saint Thomas University and a Postgraduate Diploma in International Criminal Law from Salzburg Law School. He is currently a PhD candidate in International Law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID).


Nils Melzer

Dr Nils Melzer currently holds the Human Rights Chair at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. On 30 September 2016 he was appointed as UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Dr Melzer holds a PhD in law of the University of Zürich (summa cum laude) and has authored numerous works, including his award-winning book Targeted Killing in International Law, the ICRC’s Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities, and the ICRC’s new handbook International Humanitarian Law – a Comprehensive Introduction.


Elizabeth Minor

Elizabeth Minor is an Advisor at UK non-governmental organization Article 36, which is a member of the International Steering Group of ICAN. Elizabeth previously worked for nongovernmental organisations Every Casualty and Oxford Research Group.


Ellen Nohle

Ellen Nohle obtained her bachelor in law from the University of Cambridge, Clare College, and went on to study international law and dispute settlement at the UN University for Peace in Costa Rica. She holds a BCL from the University of Oxford, and is currently working on a variety of issues relating to international humanitarian law.


Stéphane Ojeda

Stephane Ojeda has just ended his mission as Deputy Permanent Observer & Legal Adviser of the ICRC Delegation to the United Nations in New York, a role he assumed in August 2015. He assisted in designing and implementing the ICRC’s humanitarian diplomacy objectives and in overseeing the delegation’s legal positions. Ojeda joined the ICRC in August 1999 and has worked both at HQ (Law & Policy department and Operations department) and in the field (Ethiopia, Guantanamo Bay, Haiti, Israel, Lebanon and Palestine). Prior to that, he spent two years working as Education Coordinator for a French NGO in Mali. He has also worked as humanitarian adviser for the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development in Iraq and Paris. Ojeda has written on various legal topics, devoting special attention to issues of internal displacement, deprivation of liberty and counterterrorism. He is a graduate of the Institute of International Humanitarian Studies from the Faculty of Law and Political Sciences of Aix-en-Provence.

Jennie Phillips

Jennie Phillips is a Doctoral Fellow with the Citizen Lab, University of Toronto. Her research aims to identify a distributed approach to developing crisis resilience within digital crisis response networks. She holds a MA in Education Technology and has worked with the Canadian federal government, international organizations, private and non-profit sector, and her company ellips design + consulting.


Ellen Policinski

Ellen Policinski is the managing editor of the International Review of the Red Cross. Prior to joining the Review, she worked in the legal department at the ICRC delegation in Washington, DC. She previously worked on IHL dissemination at the American Red Cross and was a law and policy consultant at the Washington-based NGO Center for Civilians in Conflict. She has an LL.M. from the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, and a J.D. from the University of Villanova Law School.

Follow on Twitter @epolicinski


Anne Quintin

Anne Quintin is a Legal Training Advisor at the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). She has previously held a number of positions at the ICRC, in the organization’s headquarters in Geneva, as well as its North American delegation in Washington, DC. She is also a co-author of the reference work ‘How does law protect in war?’ together with Marco Sassòli and Antoine Bouvier. She is currently doing a PhD at the Faculty of Law of the University of Geneva.


Michael Riepl

Michael Kurt Riepl holds a German law degree from the University of Passau and an LL.M. from the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. He is currently conducting research in various areas of international law, including the field of autonomous weapons.


Bede Sheppard

Bede Sheppard is the deputy director for children’s rights at Human Rights Watch, where he investigates war crimes and abuses committed against students, teachers, and schools. During his time with Human Rights Watch, he has conducted investigations and advocacy on the Democratic Republic of Congo, Japan, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Ukraine, and Yemen.

Follow on Twitter @BedeOnKidRights


Hugo Slim

Hugo Slim is head of humanitarian policy at ICRC. An award-winning academic, he authored Killing Civilians: Method, Madness and Morality in War and over sixty academic papers. He has an MA in Theology from the University of Oxford and a PhD in Humanitarian Ethics from Oxford Brookes University. Prior to his appointment, he was a Visiting Fellow at the Oxford Institute of Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict at the University of Oxford. He has previously worked in academia, humanitarian agencies and business.

Follow on Twitter @HSlimICRC


John Sloboda

John Sloboda is co-director of Every Casualty Worldwide, which hosts the Casualty Recorders Network (CRN), and with whom it developed the Standards for Casualty Recording. They are also co-founders of Iraq Body Count, a CRN member that maintains the world’s largest public database of violent civilian deaths in Iraq since the 2003 invasion, as well as separate running total which includes combatants.

Follow on Twitter @everycasualty


Sarah Swart

Sarah Swart completed her LL.M. in Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa from the Centre for Human Rights at the University of Pretoria in 2008, with distinction. Since February 2009 she has been employed at the Pretoria Delegation of the ICRC, firstly as a Legal Assistant and, from November 2011, as the Regional Legal Advisor. In this post, she supports 13 African governments in their implementation of international humanitarian law. Sarah has published a number of articles and participated in numerous short courses on international human rights and humanitarian law.


David Tuck

David Tuck is Legal Adviser to the Operations at the ICRC.


Terry Waite

For much of his life Terry Waite has worked in conflict zones around the world. During the 1980’s he supported the freeing of hostages in Iran, Libya and Lebanon. In the latter country he was himself captured by an Islamic militia group and spent almost five years in solitary confinement. Since his release he founded the NGO Hostage UK and co-founded Y Care International, for which he acts as President.


Editorial Team


Vincent Bernard

Vincent Bernard is editor in chief of the International Review of the Red Cross, a leading academic journal on humanitarian law, policy and action published by the ICRC and Cambridge University Press. He is also the head of the Law and Policy Forum, which leads ICRC’s engagement with expert audiences interested in teaching, researching and debating international humanitarian law (IHL). The unit runs the Humanitarium conference center in Geneva, the new Humanitarian Law and Policy blog, the IHL online training center etc. Vincent joined the ICRC in 1998 and worked in the field for 6 years in Dakar, Nairobi and Jerusalem. As head of the ICRC’s field communication set-up from 2006 to 2010 he travelled and worked in most of ICRC’s operational contexts. Prior to joining the organization, Vincent studied political science, law and international relations at the Political Science Institute and Law Faculty in Strasburg, The King’s College, London and the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, and taught law at the University of Marmara in Istanbul.

Follow on Twitter @VBernardICRC

Sasha Radin

Dr. Sasha Radin is the Managing Editor of the Humanitarian Law and Policy Blog.


Jeanette Moss Krona

Jeanette Moss Krona is an assistant editor of the Humanitarian Law & Policy Blog. She also works in communications and events management in the ICRC’s International Law & Policy Department. Prior to joining the ICRC, Jeanette conducted several internships with, among others, the Alkarama Foundation for HumanRights and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in Geneva, as well as for the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Vietnam. Jeanette holds a Master’s Degree in Political Science from the University of Panthéon-Assas in Paris.